27-12-2011 | THƠ
SELECT VIETNAMESE POETRY
Translated into ENGLISH with ANNOTATIONS
by ĐÀM TRUNG PHÁP and VIÊN LINH
The Trưng Sisters: VietNam's Revered Heroines
Scorning The Northern Enemy: Nguyễn Biểu's Satire Ăn Cỗ Đầu Người
Seized Spears at Chương Dương Ferry: Trần Quang Khải's Celebratory Poem of Epic Stature
:: The Trưng Sisters: VietNam's Revered Heroines
The two paragons of heroism Lady Trưng hailed from the Phong prefecture.
Enraged hy a greedy tyrant and determined to avenge her husband,
she and her younger sister, who shared a solemn oath,
raised the lady-warrior flag asserting their command...
Hai Bà Trưng khởi nghĩa. Nét vẽ Lê Bá Đảng, Paris, 1952.
(Tài liệu của tạp chí Khởi Hành)
The popular verses above refer to Vietnam's revered heroines
Trưng Trắc and Trưng Nhị. In the year 40, these two sisters recruited
thousands of followers who helped them rout the greedy and cruel Chinese
governor Su Ding (Tô Định), who had killed Trưng Trắc's husband
Thi Sách. Su Ding's oowardly escape to China marked the end of Vietnam's
first Chinese occupation, which had lasted 150 years . Trưng
Trắc became the reigning queen of Vietnam until the year 43, when
she and her younger sister were defeated by the Chinese marshal Ma
Yuan (Mã Viện) and subsequently killed themselves by jumping into a
river. Since their deaths almost two thousand years ago, they have
been reverently commemorated as the nation's paragons of heroism
ơn their death anniversary (the sixth day of the second month of the
lunar year). Shrines in their honor exist in many places, even in southem
Guangdong (Quảng Đông) in China, but the two best-known ones
are in Đồng Nhân village near Hà Nội and Hát Môn village in Sơn Tây province.
According to the book Lĩnh Nam Chích Quái (Wonders Plucked from
the Dust of Lingnan) written in the fifteenth century, the Trưng sisters
were born in Mê Linh village, Phong prefecture. Their father was a Lạc
lord in Giao prefecture. Trưng Trắc was a strong and brave woman who
was married to Thi Sách, a resident of Diên prefecture. When the egregious
Chinese governor Su Ding killed Thi Sách, Trưng Trắc and her sister
Trưng Nhị started an uprising against the Chinese occupation.
Supported by the people of Cửu Chân, Nhật Nam, and Hợp Phố districts,
the sisters pacified sixty-five strongholds throughout Lĩnh Nam . As
the country'snew sovereign, Queen Trưng Trắc set up her court in
Mê Linh, abolished the insidious tribute taxes imposed by the Chinese,
and restored a simpler form of government reflecting traditional Vietnamese
values. Su Ding escaped to China and was dismissed by the
Han court, which later dispatched Ma Yuan (Mã Viện) and Liu Long (Lưu
Long), two seasoned generals, to Lĩnh Nam to reclaim it. The fighting
lasted for more than a year in Lạng Sơn. Outnumbered by the much
more adept enemy, the Trưng sisters and their troops had to retreat to
Cấm Khê, where they were defeated. As their troops dispersed, our
heroines killed themselves by drowning.
ln the thirteenth century, the historian Lê Văn Hưu  did not mince his
words when he wrote about the heroic deeds of the Trưng sisters, as
recorded in Đại Việt Sử Ký Toàn Thư (Complete Book of History of Great
Viet) compiled by the historian Ngô Sĩ Liên  in the fifteenth century:
"Trưng Trắc and Trưng Nhị were women. They gave one shout and
the Cửu Chân, Nhật Nam, and Hợp Phố districts, along with sixty-five
strongholds, responded to them. Their setting up the nation and proclaiming
themselves as queens was as easy as turning over their
hands. This shows that our land was able to establish a royal tradition.
Alas, for a thousand years after this uprising, the men of our land bowed
their heads, folded their arms in servitude to the Chinese. How shameful
this is in comparison with the Trưng sisters!"
THE GLORIOUS "WE ARE WE" LEGACY
The beheading Thi Sach by Su Ding
(Illustrated by Le Ba Dang, Paris, 1952)
Reflecting on the astute thinking of the scholar Phạm Huy Thông  in
his 1975 article on a new synthesis of Vietnamese history inspired by
recent archeological discoveries, published in Học tập 21 (237), two
highlights in which were that the destruction of the ancient Viet civilization
by the Chinese victors after the Trưng sisters' short-lived era
was a "death that did not become death," and that "though oppressed
by a foreign country for a thousand years, the will that 'we are we'
among our people was not something that could be shaken loose," Taylor
(1983, p. 339) cogently summarized how contemporary Vietnamese
evaluate the Trưng sisters:
"It implies that if the Trưng sisters had not resisted, there would be no
Vietnamese nation today, that the uprising of A.D. 40 effectively 'froze'
the Dong-son heritage  in a moment of historic courage, insuring that it
would not degenerate and invite the scorn of later generations. The Trưng
sisters were the last of the pre-Chinese popular leaders; their deeds
echoed across the centuries of Chinese rule, calling the Vietnamese back
to an ancient inheritance."
POETRY WRITTEN ABOUT THE HEROINES
Two poems written in honor of the Trưng sisters are translated and
annotated below. The first one, translated by the scholar Huỳnh Sanh
Thông (1996, p. 30}, is from the Hồng Đức Anthology compiled in the fifteenth
century by the highly literary court of King Lê Thánh Tông. The
second one is from the Đại Nam's National History Explained in Verse,
a work by a group of poets that was revised by Lê Ngô Cát and
Phạm Đình Toái in the nineteenth century, during the Nguyễn dynasty.
VỊNH HAI BÀ TRƯNG
Giúp dân dẹp loạn trả thù mình,
Chị rủ cùng em kết nghĩa binh.
Tô Định bay hồn vang một trận,
Lĩnh Nam mở cõi vững trăm thành.
Mới dày bảo vị gia ơn trọng,
Đã đội hoa quan xuống phúc lành.
Còn nước còn non còn miếu mạo,
Nữ trung đệ nhất đấng tài danh.
[Hồng Đức Quốc Âm Thi Tập]
HOMAGE TO THE TRƯNG QUEENS
To slay the people's foe and wreak revenge, two sisters took up
arms for their just cause. One battle put Su Ding's scared wits to
rout; a hundred tribes rose up to guard Lingnan. They climbed the
throne - large bounties they bestowed. They donned their crowns -
sweet blessings they conferred. While streams and hills endure, their
shrineshall stand, a monument to peerless womanhood.
[Hồng Đức Anthology]
HAI BÀ TRƯNG DỰNG NỀN ĐỘC LẬP
Bà Trưng quê ở châu Phong
Giận người tham bạo thù chồng chẳng quên.
Chị em nặng một lời nguyền,
Phất cờ nương tử thay quyền tướng quân,
Ngàn Tây nổi áng phong trần,
Ầm ầm binh mã xuống gần Long Biên.
Hồng quần nhẹ bước chinh yên,
Đuổi ngay Tô Định dẹp tan biên thành.
Đô kỳ đóng cõi Mê Linh,
Lĩnh Nam riêng một triều đình nước ta.
Ba thu gánh vác sơn hà,
Một là báo phục, hai là bá vương.
Uy danh động đến Bắc phương,
Hán sai Mã Viện lên đường tiến công.
Hồ Tây đua sức vẫy vùng,
Nữ nhi chống với anh hùng được nao?
Cấm Khê đến lúc hiểm nghèo,
Chị em thất thế cũng liều với sông.
Phục Ba mới dựng cột đồng,
Ải quan truyền dấu biên công cõi ngoài.
Trưng Vương vắng mặt còn ai?
Đi về thay đổi mặc người Hán quan.
[Đại Nam Quốc Sử Diễn Ca]
THE TRƯNG SISTERS ESTABLISHED INDEPENDENCE
Lady Trưng hailed from the Phong prefecture. Enraged by a greedy
tyrant and determined to avenge her husband, she and her younger
sister, who shared a solemn oath, raised the lady-general flag asserting
their command . From the west surged wind and dust, troops
and horses thundered toward Long Biên. On horseback, the ladies
agilely deployed their soldiers, quickly routing Su Dinh and flattening
his fortress. Mê Linh was to become their capital, and Lĩnh Nam
was where they held their own court. For three years they served the
country, having both taken vengeance and ascended the throne. Their
heroic reputation reached the north causing the Han court to dispatch
Ma Yuan to topple them. In Hồ Tây the two sides battled, but how
could women match seasoned male warriors? Held at bay in Cấm
Khê, the defeated sisters drowned themselves in a river. The Wave-
Calming general  erected a bronze pillar  to mark the southern
most border of his country. With Queen Trưng gone, who could be
counted on? A Han mandarin would be free to rule the land.
[Đại Nam's National History Explained in Verse]
[l] Vietnam was under Chinese rule four times, totaling 1,007 years.
The first time lasting 150 years (111 BC - 39 AD) was ended by Trưng
Trắc. The second time lasting 501 years (43 - 544) was ended by Lý
Bôn. The third time lasting 336 years (603 - 939) was ended by Ngô
Quyền, and the fourth time lasting 20 years (1407 - 1427} was ended by Lê Lợi.
 Lĩnh Nam (Lingnan} literally means "south of the mountain range"
and is an ancient Chinese name for the area thai covered China's
Guangdong (Quảng Đông), Guangxi (Quảng Tây) and northern Vietnam.
 Lê Văn Hưu was Vietnam's first historian. At the request of King
Trần Thái Tôn, he became the chief compiler of the 30-volume History of
Great Viet (Đại Việt Sử Ký) which was completed in 1272.
 Ngô Sĩ Liên was asked by King Lê Thánh Tôn to compile the 15-volume
Complete Book of History of Great Viet (Đại Việt Sử Ký Toàn Thư)
which was completed in 1479.
 The French-educated archeologist Phạm Huy Thông (1916-1988)
was also a noted poet and educator. He directed the lnstitute of Archeology
in Hanoi from 1967 to 1988.
 The Đông Sơn culture flourished during the Bronze Age in Vietnam,
when the first Vietnamese kingdoms named Văn Lang and Âu Lạc
existed. Also known as Lạc Việt, the Đông Sơn people were good at
growing rice, raising buffaloes and pigs, fishing, and sailing. They were
also skilled bronze casters whose amazing works included the famous
Đông Sơn and Ngọc Lũ drums.
 The image of two brave young women on top of elephants leading the
troops and raising swords and flags of commandis such a sublime icon of heroism!
 Wave-Calming is the translation of the honorific title Fu Bo (Phục Ba) that
was bestowed upon marshal Ma Yuan when he was dispatched to battle the Trưng sisters.
 Before Ma Yuan returned to China, he had a bronze pillar erected to mark the
southernmost border of China. On the pillar was engraved this haughty warning: "If
this pillar breaks, Giao Chỉ will perish." Giao Chỉ was the name of Vietnam at that time.
- ĐỖ ĐỨC HIỂU (chủ biên, 2003). Từ điển văn học bộ mới. Hanoi: NXB Thế Giới.
- HOÀNG THÚC TRÂM (1941). Dâng hương Miếu Hát. Hanoi: Tri Tân.
- HOÀNG XUÂN HÃN (1956). Đại Nam quốc sử diễn ca. Saigon: Trường Thi.
- HUỲNH SANH THÔNG (1996). An anthology of Vietnamese poems. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
- TAYLOR, KEITH WELLER (1983). The birth of Vietnam. Berkeley: University of California Press.
- TRẦN THẾ PHÁP (Lê Hữu Mục dịch, 1982). Lĩnh Nam chích quái. Hoa Kỳ: NXB Trăm Việt.
- TRẦN TRỌNG KIM (1953). Việt Nam sử lược. Saigon: NXB Tân Việt.
Đàm Trung Pháp & Viên Linh
(trích từ Khởi Hành số 185, tháng 3.2012)
:: Scorning The Northern Enemy: Nguyễn Biểu's Satire Ăn Cỗ Đầu Người
Nguyễn Biểu (1350-1413) was a brave righteous man
who was born in Hà Tĩnh Province during the wane of the
Trần dynasty. He was a ngự sử (a mandarin whose duty
was to prevent the king from making wrong decisions)
when Hồ Quý Ly was usurping the throne and the Ming
(Minh) troops from China were invading Vietnam under
the guise of defeating the usurper and restoring the Trần
dynasty. Nguyễn Biểu decided to join King Trần Trùng
Quang to defeat the invaders.
In early 1413, after the loss of Nghệ An, the king retreated
to Hóa Châu. To buy time, the king asked Nguyễn Biểu
to negotiate for peace with the Ming general Zhang Fu
(Trương Phụ). After the meeting, however, Zhang Fu did
not allow Nguyễn Biểu to leave. Infuriated, Nguyễn Biểu
said to Zhang Fu and his subordinates: "You brutes, you
only pretend that out of love and righteousness you have
brought your troops to aid the Trần dynasty, but you are
actually invading my country and robbing and oppressing
my innocent people. You are truly a bunch of atrocious robbers"
(Nguyễn Huyền Anh 1990, page 217). Stunned by the
daring denunciation, tbe wicked Zhang Fu wanted to ascertain
Nguyễn Biểu's fearlessness by serving him a meal of
human head, with the promise that after he finished it, he
would be set free .
Without batting an eye, Nguyễn Biểu sat down, gouged
the eyes from the human head and put them in his mouth
while reciting a poem whose wit and sarcasm scorned the
enemy from the North . This eight-line sonnet titled
Ăn cỗ đầu người (Enjoying a human-head feast) appears below
with its translation into English:
Ăn Cỗ Đầu Người
Ngọc thiện trân tu đã đủ mùi,
Gia hào thêm có cỗ đầu người.
Nem cuông (công), chả phượng còn thua béo,
Thịt gụ (gấu), gan lân hẳn kém tươi.
Ca lối lộc minh so cũng một,
Vật bày thỏ thủ bội gấp mười.
Kìa kìa ngon ngọt tày vai lợn,
Tráng sĩ như Phàn tiếng để đời.
I have savored enough precious delicacies,
My gastronomy now adds the human-head feast.
Richer than even peacock sausage and phoenix roll,
Bear meat, unicorn liver hardly compare in freshness.
The belling-deer style song is on the same par ,
The object displayed on the rabbit head is ten times more. 
Hey, hey, it is as delicious as a pork shoulder 
Brave men like Phàn enjoy eternal fame. 
Zhang Fu swallowed his pride and released Nguyễn Biểu
when the macabre meal was finished. But later, urged by
his subordinates and the sycophantic surrendered
Vietnamese generals, Zhang Fu had the fearless Nguyễn
Biểu captured and tied to a post of a bridge. He drowned
when the tide rose.
King Trần Trùng Quang bestowed upon Nguyễn Biểu the
posthumous title of Nghĩa Vương (Prince of Righteousness).
[l] This fearless spirit was also displayed by general Trần Bình Trọng in 1285, when he was captured by the invading Yuan (Nguyên) troops commanded by Togan
(Thoát Hoan). To no avail, Togan urged this valiant general to surrender, with promise of copious rewards. Finally, the captured general was asked if
he would consider a royal title in the North, whereupon he shouted, "I would rather be a devil in the South than a king in the North" (Trần
Trọng Kim 1971, page 144). Togan had him beheaded.
 This satire is a regulated poem (luật thi) observing the strict rules of Tang prosody (Đường luât). These rules were a touchstone for
literati's versificatory expertise. Like other Vietnamese poets of the old days, the erudite Nguyễn Biểu made use of literary allusions (điển tích) to
Chinese culture and history. He created this biting satire by equating the disgust of a gruesome human-head meal with prized delicacies served and uplifting music
played during imperial banquets mentioned in the Shi Jing (Kinh Thi).
 Nguyễn Biểu alluded to China's revered Shi Jing, one of the five classics compiled by Confucius (Khổng Tử). "Lộc minh" (The deer is belling)
is a poem sung during banquets in the imperial court, the goal of which was for the emperor to bond with his subjects. The song's endearing lyrics are as follows:
The deer bells softly / Urging others to graze in the field / I have many good friends / Let music fill the air / Bring me the silk that I have for the guests /
Those who appreciate me / Pray show me the high road. (For these lyrics in Chinese characters and in Sino-vietnamese transliteration, see Tạ Quang Phát 1969, page 727).
Note the sarcasm in this verse, where Nguyễn Biểu equated the uplifting "lộc minh" song in an acient Chinese imperial court with whatever sounds witnesses
of a macabre meal could have produced in general Zhang Fư's headquarters.
 The meaning of this verse is difficult to decipher. "Rabbit head" (thỏ thủ) may be a literary allusion whose source we do not know. We assume that the
rabbit head was a large plate having the shape of the head of that mammal. The object displayed on it, a human head, for Nguyễn Biểu to eat was worth, sarcastically,
ten times whatever precious delicacy would be placed on it for guests in an ancient Chinese imperial banquet. [Please note that this is the best interpretation the
authors of this article could come up with for this verse. We would like to know of other interpretations for it from our readers].
 This verse alluded to the moment when the voracious reveler Fan Kuai (Phàn Khoái) was simultaneously dancing, fencing, and chewing on a whole pork
shoulder at a banquet, an intentional act to show off his physical strength. Thanks to this spectacular show of force, Liu Bang escaped death from Xiang Yu
(Hạng Võ), another man of incredible physical strength. Nguyễn Biểu implied a similar role he played by eating a human head.
 Fan Kuai (Phàn Khoái) "started out as a seller of dog meat who had an extraordinary physical strength" (Trịnh Vân Thanh 1966, page 1019).
He was married to a younger sister of Lu Hou (Lữ Hậu), the cruel and lascivious wife of Liu Bang (Lưu Bang). "Liu Bang was originally an illiterate
farmer (Nguyễn Hiến Lê 2003, page 178). Fan Kuai helped him vanquish the Qin (Tần) dynasty. As the founder of the Han dynasty, the notoriously
arrogant Liu Bang ruled it from 202 BC to 195 BC. With numerous military victories, Fan Kuai became a famous general.
Đàm Trung Pháp & Viên Linh
(trích từ Khởi Hành số 179, tháng 9.2011)
Đào Duy Anh (1957). Hán Việt từ điển. Saigon: Trường Thi.
HOOK, BRIAN (1991). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of China. New York: Cambridge University Press.
NGUYỄN HIẾN LÊ (2003). Sử Trung Quốc. Westminster, CA: Văn Nghệ.
NGUYỄN HUYỀN ANH (1990). Danh nhân từ điển. Pearland, TX: Zieleks.
TẠ QUANG PHÁT (1969). Thi Kinh tập truyện (Tập II). Saigon: Bộ Giáo Dục.
TRẦN TRỌNG KIM (1971). Việt Nam Sử lược (Quyển I). Saigon: Bộ Giáo Dục.
TRỊNH VÂN THANH (1966). Thành-ngữ điển-tích danh-nhân từ-điển. [First published in Saigon; reprinted by Xuân Thu in the United States, date unknown].
WILKINSON, ENDYMION (2000). Chinese history: A manual. Harvard-Yenching Institute Monograph Series, 52. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
:: Seized Spears at Chương Dương Ferry: Trần Quang Khải's Celebratory Poem of Epic Stature
In the history of Vietnam's struggle for independence,
the Lý dynasty (l010-1225) and the Trần dynasty (1225-
1400) stood out as the two most glorious. During these four
hundred years, the country produced far more heroes than
at any other time, even though its land area was less than
half of what it is now, with its southern border ending only
at Nghệ An. Aggressors from the north, including the fearsome
Mongols, had oftentimes been tempted by this beautiful land,
yet every time they were crushed, with numerous generals, princes,
and thousands of troops killed in fierce battles. Among the military
geniuses and refined literati of these two dynasties were Lý Thường Kiệt and
Trần Quang Khải. While Marshal Lý Thường Kiệt of the
Lý dynasty achieved phenomenal military victories and
penned the poem Nam Quốc Sơn Hà, known as the country's
first declaration of independence, General and Prime
Minister Trần Quang Khải of the Trần dynasty accomplished
similar astounding military victories and authored
Đoạt Sáo Chương Dương Độ, a short celebratory poem of epic stature.
The Mongols, although more barbaric than other Asian
groups at the time, were awesome warriors. Cruel and belligerent,
they were crackerjack archers and cavalrymen
with great mobility. They knew only one kind of order -
the order of their leader. They would charge when so
ordered even though they knew that the action would be
fatal. Their ancestors were the Huns (Rợ Hồ or Hung Nô in
Vietnamese). They were Buddhists, but they hardly understood
the teachings of this noble religion (Phạm Văn Sơn
1960). That was the kind of enemies that our heroes of the Trần dynasty had to face.
Trần Quang Khải (1241-1294) was the third son of King
Trần Thái Tông and a younger brother of King Trần Thánh
Tông. Robust, handsome, and gifted in both literary and
military arts, he played a major role in the campaigns
against the Mongol invaders, in association with another
stellar military strategist, General Trần Hưng Đạo. Of his
many military triumphs, his watershed victory at Chương
Dương Ferry in 1285 stood out, as it led to the liberation of
the capital Thăng Long which had been occupied by Togan
(Thoát Hoan) and his troops for a few months. In 1282 he
became the country's prime minister with great authority
over national matters. In light of his tremendous service to
the country, King Trần Thánh Tông bestowed on him the
title of Prince Chiêu Minh (Chiêu Minh Vương) as a reward 
Toward the end of 1284, threatened with imminent capture
by the Mongols, the capital Thăng Long had been
abandoned. Yet, in the summer of 1285, King Trần Nhân
Tông could return in triumph to his seat of power. At a
royal banquet in Thăng Long celebrating this momentous
victory, Prime Minister Trần Quang Khải recited a four-
line poem that he composed in Chinese characters.
Extolling glorious victories over ferocious enemies, providing
sound advice for citizens during peace time, and praying
for an eternal existence for the country, all in an elevated
style, the historic poem was an epic in miniature.
It is presented below in its Sino-Vietnamese transliteration,
along with its translations into Vietnamese and English:
Đoạt sáo Chương Dương Độ 
Cầm Hồ Hàm Tử Quan
Thái bình nghi nỗ lực 
Vạn cổ thử giang san
Trần Quang Khải
Chương Dương cướp giáo giặc
Hàm Tử bắt quân thù
Thái bình nên gắng sức
Non nước ấy nghìn thu
Trần Trọng Kim dịch
We seized spears at Chương Dương Ferry 
We captured Huns at Hàm Tử Port 
In peace let us maintain our strength 
Forever shall live this nation.
Translated by Huỳnh Sanh Thông
 The king also gave Trần Quang Khải a streamer on
which two verses were embroidered. They read: "A great
stature, others also have / Loyalty to both royal courts, only
you do" ("Nhất đại công danh, thiên hạ hữu / Lưỡng triều
trung hiếu, thế gian vô").
 An alternate for the second word in this verse is
"sóc," which is actually the correct word for expressing the
idea of "long spear." See Trần Trọng San & Trần Trọng Tuyên (1997, page 248).
 An alternate for the third word in this verse is "tu."
 Chương Dương Ferry is now in Thường Tín District,
Hà Đông Province. It was here that Trần Quang Khải
crushed Prince Togan (Thoát Hoan), a son of Kubilai (Hốt Tất Liệt), in 1285.
 The Huns (Rợ Hồ or Hung Nô) were a nomadic people,
probably originating in northern central Asia, who
invaded China in the third century B.C. and then spread
westward to Asia and Europe. During the fourth century
A.D., under their leader, Attila (A Đề Lạp), they overran
much of the Roman Empire. Trần Quang Khải referred to
the Mongols as descendants of the barbaric and destructive
Huns. Hàm Tử Port is now in Văn Giang District, Hưng
Yên Province. It was at this port that Trần Nhật Duật triumphed
over Sogetu (Toa Đô), a Mongol general.
 The message of this verse is similar to the Latin
adage Si vis pacem, para bellum" meaning "If you wish for
peace, prepare for war." More than anyone else, Trần
Quang Khải knew that a strong society would be less likely
to be attacked by enemies. The Latin adage was by the
fifth-century author Flavius Vegetius Renatus in his book
De re militari or "Concerning military matters."
Đàm Trung Pháp & Viên Linh
(trích từ Khởi Hành số 178, tháng 8.2011)
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ABOUT THE AUTHORS
Đàm Trung Pháp is currently a tenured full professor of linguistics at Texas Woman's University. He is also the series editor of monographs on language education under the auspices of the Federation of North Texas Area Universities. From 1968 to 1975,
Professor Đàm taught English at the University of Saigon and directed its Center of Languages.
Viên Linh is a noted poet and novelist, whose first collection of poems titled Hoa Than (Metamorphosis) was published in Saigon in 1964. ln 1974 he won First Place for Novels in the National Literature and Arts Prizes. He was also the recipient of a Ford Foundation fellowship in 1976 to do
research on Literary Trends in South Vietnam during the period 1954-1975. He is currently editor-publisher of Khoi Hanh Literary Magazine.